Vengeancia (updated January 2015) “Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, third of eleven children of an Anglican priest, was a mathematician and a logician who was a lecturer at Oxford for some 26 years.

“He was also an accomplished photographer, and a Church Deacon. Dodgson’s pen name, (and the name by which you will undoubtedly know him best), was Lewis Carroll. He is best known for Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865).” More.

Here’s an animation from White Rabbit Radio.

“For thus saith the Lord, Ye have sold yourselves for nought; and ye shall be redeemed without money.” Isaiah 52:3 Stop consenting to pledge your “body” as collateral and salvageable public property for the Elite! Believe it or not, we – you and me- are the “private” bankers…We are the “them” Mel Gibson describes to Julia Roberts (did you catch it – her name is Alice) in Conspiracy Theory. “Soylent Green is People!” Read more.  Accept the Deed and Be the Owner, here.

Americans, like Alice, have gone Through the Looking Glass
Americans have gone Through the Looking Glass

In 1871, Carroll wrote the sequel entitled Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There. This was the same year as the United States passed the District of Columbia Organic Act, establishing…

a Corporation
with a legislature, with all the apparatus of a distinct government created (Incorporated) by (Presidential) Legislative Act, February 21, 1871
Forty-first Congress, Session III,
Chapter 62, page 419

Check out Ben Bernanke and the Wisdom of Parasites, here. “The underlying theme of Kubrick’s Eyes Wide Shut and allusion to Lewis Carroll’s books Alice In Wonderland (1865), and Through The Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There (1871) (aka – Alice Through The Looking Glass) is highly appropriate, as EWS deals with the issues surrounding reality versus the dream-world, and this metaphor could not be an accident, and had to have been inserted into the storyline by Mr. Kubrick on purpose.” More. Check out Voodoo Dolls of the Elite and Stating Your Claim.

It's no coincidence that Nicole Kidman's character in EWS is named "Alice."
It’s no coincidence that Nicole Kidman’s character in EWS is named “Alice.”

“This is also a fitting metaphor for our times, as many people seem to be fast asleep as to the evil that is being carried out in their names, and in the names of their children, and our nation.

“For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.” Ephesians 6:12 The down the rabbit hole metaphor has been widely used in the contemporary American mass media, such as with perhaps the most infamous instance, which appeared in the 1999 film The Matrix, which also dealt with many of these same issues of reality versus dreams.” More.

Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm?
Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm?

“After the Declaration of Independence was signed, Virginia statesman John Page wrote to Thomas Jefferson: ‘We know the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm?’

“Remember the situation George W. was facing on January 20, 2001.  Left Wing Illuminist President Bill Clinton was passing the baton off to Right Wing George W. Bush.  While most of the Illuminists throughout the world were sure that George W. was just as Illuminist as Clinton, they were looking for a sign or signs during the Inaugural ceremony that would confirm their belief.” Read more….

“And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast…” Revelation 13:14

A license gives our consent to the corporation to violate our Rights.

What is a Sovereign?

“From the context of the Preamble to the Constititution, one may conclude that the People, as ordainers and establishers of the Trust known as The Constitution, are sovereigns of the country, and may not be subjected to the laws of the United States involuntarily. Government powers may not reach beyond that which is constitutionally granted. In order for the government to subject we, the people, to its law it is necessary for us to relinquish our sovereignty.

And he deceives ... by those signs which he was granted to do in the sight of the beast...
And he deceives … by those signs which he was granted to do in the sight of the beast…

“And God spoke all these words, saying, “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve them … ” Exodus 20:1-26

“But I don’t want to go among mad people,” Alice remarked.
“Oh, you can’t help that,” said the Cat: “we’re all mad here. I’m mad. You’re mad.”
“How do you know I’m mad?” said Alice.
“You must be,” said the Cat, “or you wouldn’t have come here.”

Are Americans too late?
Are Americans too late?

“And if you go chasing rabbits, and you

know you’re going to fall…”

Jefferson Airplane, White Rabbit

‘No, no!’ said the Queen. ‘Sentence first — verdict afterwards.’ ‘Stuff and nonsense!’ said Alice loudly. ‘The idea of having the sentence first!’ Hold your tongue!’ said the Queen, turning purple. ‘I won’t!’ said Alice. ‘Off with her head!’ the Queen shouted at the top of her voice. Nobody moved. Who cares for you?’ said Alice, (she had grown to her full size by this time.) ‘You’re nothing but a pack of cards!’

“The argument that the two parties should represent opposed ideals and policies… is a foolish idea… Instead, the two parties should be almost identical, so that the American people can “throw the rascals out” at any election without leading to any profound or extreme shifts in policy… replace it, every four years if necessary, by the other party…[which] will still pursue, with new vigor, approximately the same basic policies.” Tragedy and Hope, p1247-1248


is ‘government by secret societies’, or by a group of initiates who operate from behind the scenes.

It is an analogue of ‘theocracy’, or rule by a priesthood.”

Marquis Alexandre Saint-Yves d’Alveydre?

The Judeo-Christian Theocracy is a front for the international bankstering cartel.

“The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake. We are not interested in the good of others; we are interested solely in power. Not wealth or luxury or long life or happiness; only power, pure power….Power is not a means; it is an end. One does not establish a dictatorship in order to safeguard a revolution; one makes the revolution in order to establish the dictatorship….If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face – forever.” O’Brien to Winston inGeorge Orwell’s book, 1984, published in 1949.

“Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone else’s opinions, their lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation.” Oscar Wilde, Irish dramatist, novelist, & poet (1854 – 1900)

“Meet the new boss, same as the old boss….” The Who, Won’t Get Fooled Again

You have a Surrogate

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.


As David Icke, Jeff Rense, Stanley Kubrick, and many, many others have pointed out, the elite wear masks to hide their true identities. What about we, the people? Are we wearing a mask as well? I’m glad you asked that question. Yes, we do! But it’s much more than a mask. It’s more like a robot, a puppet, a surrogate, a clone of the flesh and blood man or woman.

Pinocchio was a wooden boy puppet who came to life. His nose grew larger when he told a lie and returned to normal size when he told the truth. Pinocchio had to stop telling lies in order to become a REAL boy. The Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce remarked that "the wood out of which Pinocchio is carved is humanity itself".

Pinocchio was a wooden boy puppet who came to life. His nose grew larger when he told a lie and returned to normal size when he told the truth. Pinocchio had to stop telling lies in order to become a REAL boy. The Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce remarked that “the wood out of which Pinocchio is carved is humanity itself”. When we are born in America and around the world, a legal “person” is named on the birth certificate, which becomes a surety, or guarantor, a condition and obligation that is automatically and unwittingly assumed unless we rebut the presumption by effectively noticing government. The real flesh and blood human baby is to assume the liability for any burden, such as the national debt, created or associated with this puppet, strawman, and trade name listed on the birth certificate.

Let Us Reason “Secret initiations have always been part of the occult but what was once hidden is now open. New Age leaders have gone public since 1975 have for over 20 years admitted that it is Lucifer, called both the Solar God and Solar Logos, is whom the New Age actually serves. David Spangler, for instance, has stated:

“Christ is the same force as Lucifer… Lucifer prepares man for the experience of Christhood. [He is] the great initiator…. Lucifer works within each of us to bring us to wholeness, and as we move into a New Age … each of us in some way is brought to that point which I term the Luciferic Initiation … for it is an invitation into the New Age.”

Clearly the Lucifer of this movement that wants to unite all religions is the basis of operation for theosophy, Masonry, Rosicrucianism, Bahai and numerous other false philosophies. It is a fact if one goes through Lucifer to experience the Christhood he is offering, if they come out, they are scarred. Lucifer does not give man freedom but slavery by blinding them with the light of initiation into darkness.” More.

“All the world’s a stage,

And all the men and women merely players…”

As You Like It

Stanley Kubrick Exposes the Shadowy World of the Elite in "Eyes Wide Shut"
Stanley Kubrick Exposes the Shadowy World of the Elite in “Eyes Wide Shut”

What is the NWO Agenda?

The real man or woman provides the energy to animate this puppet, surrogate, strawman, etc.  The puppet, a “public” entity, is programmed by the Federal Corporation from the very beginning to operate within the world of codes and statutes.

Also, from Black’s Law 6th Edition:

“Guarantor. Person who becomes secondarily liable for another’s debt or performance… One who promises to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another.”

Ron Paul: People are Being Treated Like Cattle by TSA
People are Treated Like Cattle by TSA and Other Franchises of the Federal Corporation

What if we don’t agree with being thus conscripted involuntarily?

Read what James Madison had to say about the original intention of the founders.

Also, to free yourself, check out A Journey to Freedom: The Story of Burt.

The Matrix: real people become STATUES controlled by STATUTES!
The Matrix: real people become STATUES controlled by STATUTES!

Summary: A “national government” operates upon and derives its authority from individual citizens whereas a “federal government” operates upon and derives its authority from states. The only place where the federal government may operate directly upon the individual man or woman is through the authority of law is within federal territory.  The federal government has no jurisdiction within a state of the Union and therefore cannot operate directly upon the people there.

This is why the “US citizen” fiction has been attached to the flesh and blood man and woman. Your puppet is part of federal “territory.” You do not own your puppet, the federal corporation owns it.

“Inasmuch as every government is an artificial person, an abstraction, and a creature of the mind only, a government can interface only with other artificial persons. The imaginary, having neither actuality nor substance, is foreclosed from creating and attaining parity with the tangible. The legal manifestation of this is that no government, as well as any law, agency, aspect, court, etc. can concern itself with anything other than corporate, artificial persons and the contracts between them.” S.C.R. 1795, Penhallow v. Doane’s Administraters (3 U.S. 54; 1 L.Ed. 57; 3 Dall. 54), Supreme Court of the United States 1795

How and When Your Puppet was Born

The Political History of the United States

“… two national governments exist; one to be maintained under the Constitution, with all its restrictions, the other to be maintained by Congress outside and independently of that instrument. By exercising such powers as other nations of the earth are accustomed to a radical and mischievous change in our system of government will result … We will, in that event, pass from the era of constitutional liberty guarded and protected by a written constitution into an era of legislative absolutism … It will be an evil day for American liberty if the theory of a government outside the supreme law of the land finds lodgement in our constitutional jurisprudence.” Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244 (1901)

“We have in our political system a government of the United States and a government of each of the several States. Each one of these governments is distinct from the others, and each has citizens of its own who owe it allegiance, and whose rights, within its jurisdiction, it must protect. The same person may be at the same time a citizen of the United States and a citizen of a State, but his rights of citizenship under one of these governments will be different from those he has under the other.” United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1875)

Your Puppet is a like a Voodoo Doll for the Corporation
Your Puppet is a like a Voodoo Doll for the Corporation

If you claim to be a “US citizen,” you are a franchise of one, a contractor, a puppet, working for this federal corporation masquerading as a government of the people.  At the helm of this plantation-style corporation headquartered in D.C., is an elite group of banksters and wealthy families that benefits directly from the labor of we, the people. Other terms that the govt. uses interchangeably with “citizen” to persuade people to give up our sovereignty are: person, individual, human being, resident and alien. If we, the people, hold ALL of the power, then we, the puppets, hold none of it!

The “citizen” is a mirror image of the flesh and blood “you,” an avatar, a commercial entity, a strawman, a ghost, a puppet, like Pinocchio. The govt. created it, ostensibly, in order to manage its operations as part of the interstate commerce and other clauses of the Constitution:

“The federal judiciary unconstitutionally re-defined a provision in the Constitution and expanded federal power from the bench….Under the “new Constitution,” as written by the 9 member Constitutional Convention commonly known as the United States Supreme Court, Congress has the power to enact and enforce so-called federal civil rights statutes within the several States because deprivation of these “rights” has an adverse effect on interstate commerce. This “new power,” according to the Court, is separate from and in addition to Congress’ power under the Fourteenth Amendment.”

So, rather than being made in YOUR image, to serve YOUR very REAL need for food, shelter, clean air and water, etc., the corporation made your puppet in the corporation’s image, to serve the elite’s dysfunctional need to control everything and everybody, to keep the slaves working on the farm. The States are Constitutors and liable for the Federal debt, not the people. But under the 14th Amendment, your puppet becomes a “transmitting utility” that serves to siphon off all of the fruit of your labor into the hands of the elite few! Since this puppet can’t act under it’s own power, the corporation has tricked YOU, a sovereign, into animating it!

“By this means government may secretly and unobserved, confiscate the wealth of the people, and not one man in a million will detect the theft.”

British Lord John Maynard Keynes

Click here for more quotes on bankstering at Barefoot’s’ World

One Pill Makes You Larger and One Pill Makes You Small

The corporation masquerades as a legitimate collective, and taxes and extorts you by your own consent because you think you are contributing your “fair share.” However, while you were sleeping in the Land of Nod, going about your business blissfully, thinking you were acquiring material possessions such as your home and your car, etc., this corporation has been growing, metastasizing, franchising into states, counties, and cities, and now claims to own all of YOUR property, including you, your body, and your children and THEIR bodies.

“Tell them a hookah smoking caterpillar
Has given you the call”

In Gulliver’s first adventure, he begins on a ship that runs aground on a submerged rock. He swims to land, and when he awakens, he finds himself tied down to the ground, and surrounded by tiny people, the Lilliputians. Just like in this story, the federal corporation has persuaded “we, the citizens,” to tie up “we, the people” and put us in jail and in FEMA camps! It is accomplishing this feat through FRAUD and DECEPTION.

According to Title 42, Chapter 21 of the Civil Rights Act, our modern-day Gulliver can expect

“…punishment, pains, penalties, taxes,

licenses, and exactions of every kind.”

We at Musicians 4 Freedom prefer to call ourselves “people,” to distinguish ourselves as private flesh and blood living beings, inhabiting the republic, the very same god-endowed men and women who created, and are cited in, the founding documents of America, including the Magna Carta, the Treaty of Paris, the Articles of Confederation, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

Pawns in the Game by William Guy Carr

The Grand Chessboard by Zbigniew Brzezinski

We want to be the ones pulling our puppet’s strings, inhabiting our own intentional communities, and sending our puppet to engage on the fictional seas of  public “commerce” once in a while, just as we might take on a part time job as a “worker” at a retail store such as Starbucks. We are not above the law; we make the law, in the same way an architect builds a building. The law is where we live. We live in a real world with real people, not a fictional world like something out of the movie,  The Matrix!

Who's the Fairest?
Who’s the Fairest?

Many of these “fairy” tales are metaphors for our lives. The Wizard of Oz is a favorite. To the degree that we, the people, live in the fictional world presented by the lamestream media, where the government-created puppet lives, we neglect our real selves; our bodies, our children, the grass that grows, the wind that blows; this is the degree to which we allow our planet and our families to become “the desert of the real,” as Morpheus calls it.

Think of the federal corporation like Starbucks headquarters, and your local city, county, and state so-called government offices as franchises of this corporation. Further, just about every business we encounter in our communities is chartered by this federal corporation! When you agree to work for a Starbucks franchise, they give you a bunch of rules and you agree to follow them. It’s a contract, right? But when you leave work for the day, you get to relax in your own private world. To identify with the “citizen,” full-time would be like never leaving your job! No wonder Americans are stressed out! No wonder we all feel like we are being jerked around like PUPPETS on a continuous basis!

We the people have the power to alter and abolish government

Dorothy: Oh, will you help me? Can you help me?

Glinda: You don’t need to be helped any longer. You’ve always had the power to go back to Kansas.

Dorothy: I have?

Scarecrow: Then why didn’t you tell her before?

Glinda: Because she wouldn’t have believed me. She had to learn it for herself.


Index of Roman Laws

Lex Acilia de Intercalando (191 BC) – adjustment of the calendar

Lex Acilia Repetundarum (123 BC) – by tribune Glabrio M’ Acilius, reformed the courts for the recovery of extorted property (quaestio de repetundis) allowing equites as jurors.

Lex Acilia et Calpurnia (67 BC) – permanent exclusion from office in cases of electoral corruption.

Lex Aebutia de Magistratibus Extraordinariis (c. 150 BC) – the proposer of an extra-ordinary magistracy (such as Dictator) cannot be the one to hold the office.

Lex Aebutia de Formulis (c. 2nd century BC) – Abolished the legis actiones litigation system in favor formulary procedure.

Leges Aelia et Fufia (about 150 BC) – Confirmed right of any curule magistrate or tribune to disband all assemblies of the people on simple declaration that he had witnessed an unfavorable omen, repealed by the leges clodiae in 58 BC.

Lex Aelia Sentia (4 AD) – consular law applied by Augustus against the emancipation of slaves among their masters. Freed slaves who had committed certain offenses could quickly have their liberty taken away.

Lex Antonia de Permutatione Provinciae (44 BC) – Marcus Antonius set this law which gave him a five year’s command in Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul in lieu of Macedon. Also gave authorization to transfer Caesar’s legions from Macedon to the new provinces.

Lex Antonia de Termessibus – alliance with Termessus

Leges Antoniae – measures of Marcus Antonius against the dictatorship etc.

Lex Appuleia Agraria et Frumentaria (100 BC) – laws of tribune L. Appuleius Saturninus provided for land distribution to the veterans of C. Marius nd a grain dole to the people. Demagoguery of Saturninus resulted in his death and the annulment of this law.

Lex Aternia et Tarpeia de Multis (454 BC) – allowed curule magistrates to fine citizens who resisted their authority.

Lex Atinia (131 or 102 BC) – Tribunes of the plebs automatically promoted to the Senate following their term.

Lex Aufeia (124 BC) – related to the settlement of Asia Minor.

Lex Aurelia Iudiciaria (70 BC) – arranged an equitable distribution of jury service among senators, equites, and tribunes.

Lex Baebia de Praetoribus (c. 192 BC) – set the number of praetors elected at 4 and 6 in alternating years (largely ignored).

Lex Caecilia et Didia – (98 BC) – forbade the combination of proposed measures in one omnibus bill and enacted that a regular interval of 3 market-days must elapse between the proposal of a bill and its voting in the assembly.

Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis (149 BC) -by tribune L. Calpurnius Piso, established a permanent court to monitor provincial governors.

Lex Canuleia de Conubio Patrum et Plebis (445 BC).- by C. Canuleius, reversed Twelve Table’s decision of no intermarriage between patricians and plebeians.

Lex Cassia Tabellaria (137 BC) – Introduces secret ballot in court jury decisions (except for cases of treason).

Lex Claudia de Senatoribus (218 BC) – by tribune Q. Claudius, supported by senator C. Flaminius, prohibited senators from possessing ships of sea-going capacity and to have unbiased commerce laws. Disregarded by first century B.C.

Leges Corneliae (81 BC) – Laws of the dictator L. Cornelius Sulla, intended to strengthen the senate and eliminate demagoguery legislation.

Lex Curiata de Imperio – law passed in the Comitia Curiata used to ratify the choice of a new king, also (as de Adoptione) confirmed Octavian’s adoption as Caesar’s son in 43 BC.

Lex Domitia de Sacerdotiis (104 BC) – Established election of priests by the comitia plebis (people’s assembly), which was originally chosen by the college of Augurs.

Lex Frumentaria – A generic term meaning a law regulating price of grain.

Lex Fufia Caninia (2 BC) – consular law imposed by Augustus, limited the number of slaves that an owner could free in his will.

Lex Gabinia (67 BC) – by tribune A. Gabinius, gave Pompey overriding command in the Mediterranean Sea against pirate activity.

Lex Gellia et Cornelia (72 BC) – consuls of this year authorized Legates to confer Roman citizenship. Pompey’s clientela and residents of Hispania were the primary beneficiaries at the time of passage.

Leges Genuciae (342 BC) – by plebeian consul L. Genucius, prohibited loans which carry interest, declared that the same magisterial office should not be held twice within ten years nor could one man hold two offices at once. Also allowed that both consuls could be plebeians. All except the last provision fell into disuse.

Lex Hadriana – Hadrian’s law that enabled permanent tenants to develop land, it was an extension of the Lex Marciana.

Lex Hortensia (287 BC) -by plebeian dictator Q. Hortensius, said that resolutions of the Concilium Plebis (plebiscita) should have the force of law and bind the whole community, important measure for the voice of the plebs.

Lex Icilia (456 BC) – law carried by tribune L. Icilius, provided public land on the Aventine for plebeian dwellings.

Lex Iulia (90 BC) – brought by consul L. Caesar, offered citizenship to all Italians who had not raised arms against Rome in the Italian War (Social War).

Lex Iulia de Adulteriis Coercendis (18 BC) – part of Augustus’ marriage-code, made conjugal unfaithfulness a public as well as a private offense with banishment a possible penalty.

Lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus (18 BC) – part of Augustus’ marriage-code, marrying age celibates and young widows that won’t marry were debarred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games. Similar penalties on the married but childless, and Senators couldn’t marry freedwomen. It was so unpopular that in AD 9 consuls M. Papius and Q. Poppaeus tried to modify and complete it (Lex Papia Poppaea). Domitian tried to enforce this law forgotton law a century later.

Lex Iulia Municipalis (45 BC) – preserved in inscription from Heraclea in southern Italy. Drafted by Caesar, published by Antonius, set regulations for the Italian municipalities.

Lex Iunia (126 BC) – by tribune M. Iunius Pennus, expelled those who were not citizens from Rome, preventing a possible citizenship bill to Italians by Fulvius Flaccus.

Lex Iunia Norbana (17 BC or 19 AD) – Augustus put check upon emancipation of slaves without fulfillment of proper formalities.

Lex Licinia et Pompeia (or Pompeia et Licinia) (55 BC) – Consuls Pompey and Crassus prolonged Caesar’s proconsulship in the Gauls for another 5 years.

Lex Licinia Sextia (367 BC) – by the tribunes C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius, set an upper limit of 500 iugera (300 acres) as the amount of public land which one person might occupy (limiting the power of the Patricii). Additionally, this law may have provided for one consul being a Plebeian, but the evidence is conflicting. Consuls with names of Plebeian origin had served before, and the Lex Genucia which has similar verbiage was passed only 25 years later.

Lex Maenia (after 293 BC) – forced the senate or patrician assembly to grant imperium to plebeian magistrates elected by the people’s assembly.

Lex Maenia et Sestia (452 BC) – fixed the scale for fines.

Lex Manilia de Imperio Cn. Pompeius (66 BC) – by C. Manilius, gave Pompey overall command in the east to fight Mithridates VI and Tigranes.

Lex Marciana (around Flavian dynasty) – dealt with imperial and private cases in North Africa, regulated relations between cultivators and the proprietors.

Lex Ogulnia (c. 300 BC) – Opened the priesthoods to plebeians.

Lex Oppia (215 BC) – first of a series of sumptuary laws on women, strict but repealed after the Second Punic War ended.

Lex Ovinia (c. 312 BC) – law that gave censors, instead of consuls, the right to revise the member list of the Senate.

Lex Papia Poppaea (9 AD) – by consuls M. Papius and Q. Poppaeus, revisions of the lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus.

Lex Papiria et Iulia (or Iulia et Papria) (430 BC) – made payment of fines in bronze mandatory.

Lex Plautia Iudiciaria (89 BC) – chose jurors from other classes, not just the Equites.

Lex Plautia et Papiria (89 BC) – by tribunes M. Plautius and C. Papirius, gave full citizenship to every unenfranchised freedman in Italian cities.

Lex Plautia de Reditu Lepidanorum (70 BC) – granted a pardon to exiled associates of M. Aemilius Lepidus.
Lex Poetelia (326 BC) – required a judgement by a court authorize enslavement before execution was carried out and alleviated much debt bondage.

Lex Pompeia de Civitate (89 BC) – by consul Cn. Pompeius Strabo (father of Pompey), made Cisalpine Gaul a Latin rights status province.

Lex Porcia (Laeca?) (199 BC) – proposed by tribune P. Porcius Laeca to give right of appeal in capital cases.

Lex Porcia de Tergo Civium (c. 198-184 BC) – By M. Porcius Cato Major, prohibited scourging of citizens without appeal.

Lex Publilia (339 BC) – by plebeian dictator Publilius Philo, difficult to discern from the Lex Valeria et Horatia of 449 and the Lex Hortensia of 287. Required one appointed censor to be plebeian and negated the veto power of the patrician assembly over legislation enacted in the assembly of the centuries.

Lex Publilia Voleronis de Tribunis Plebis (471) – Allowed the election of tribunes through the people’s assembly rather than the centuriate which severely curtailed patrician influence.

Lex Roscia (49 BC) – Caesar proposed, gave citizenship to the people of Transalpine Gaul.

Lex Rubria (c. 45 BC) – a supplement to Caesar’s Lex Roscia incorporating Cisalpine Gaul into Italy.

Lex Sacrata (494 BC) – law after first secession of the plebeians that established the Tribunis Plebis magistracy.

Lex Sempronia Agraria (133 BC) – distribution of land to the plebes by tribune Tiberius Gracchus. Tiberius avoided Senateorial debate and passed the law through the assembly (a plebiscitum). Ultimately resulted in the murder of Gracchus.

Lex Servilia Iudicaria (106 BC) – by consul Q. Servilius Caepio, some control of property/extortion courts was handed back to senators from the equites.

Lex Servilia Glaucia de Repetundis (104 or 101 BC) – by tribune C. Servilius Glaucia, repealed the Lex Servilia Iudicaria.

Lex Sumptuaria – A generic term for a law that regulated the use of luxury items and public display of wealth.

Lex Terentia et Cassia (73 BC) – by consuls M. Terentius Varro and C. Cassius Longinus, safeguarded the grain supply of Rome and distributed grain at reduced rates.

Lex Titia (43 BC) – Gave Octavianus, Marcus Antonius and Lepidus full power for 5 years to defeat the assassins of Caesar; and legalizes the second triumvirate.

Lex Valeria de Provocatione- it granted every Roman citizen legal right to appeal against a capital sentence, defined and confirmed the right of appeal (provocation).

Lex Valeria Cornelia (5 AD) – the two consuls amended the procedure for election of praetors and consuls in Comitia Centuriata. Additional group of ten centuries (centuriae C. et L. Caesaris) were named to honor magistates after death and gave them the preliminary choice of the candidates to stand for election.

Lex Valeria et Horatia de Plebiscitum (449 BC) – Defined the rights and authority of tribunes following the second plebeian secession.

Lex Vatinia (59 BC) – by tribune P. Vatinius, gave Julius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and of Illyricum for five years.

Lex Villia Annalis (180 BC) – first law to set minimum ages for curule magistrates, Aediles 36, Praetors 39, Consuls 42 and forced a period of two years between each lesser magistracy.

Lex Voconia (169 BC) – by tribune Voconius, limited the amount of real estate that could be willed to female heirs, but was mostly evaded due to transfers of land to male trustees acting on the behalf of women.

Senatus Consultum – A general term meaning a decree made by the majority of the Senate.

Senatus Consultum de re Publica Defenda – Senate decree for the defence of the Republic. Issued by the senate in cases of extreme peril for the Republic, usually to deal with internal political violence. The first decree was issued in 121 BC due to riots provoked by Gaius Gracchus.

Twelve Tables (451 BC) – The first set of Roman laws published by the Decemviri which would be the starting point of the elaborate Roman constitution. The twelve tables covered issues of civil, criminal and military law.